Pig rearing business is relatively simple compared to other forms of livestock. Starting a pig farm in Nigeria is one of the most lucrative business ventures.
Farmers who have started pig rearing as full-time businesses are now producing high-quality meat and making a good profit.
Rearing of pigs in Nigeria can be done either on a small scale or large scale ventures for the purpose of providing food and nutrition to the family or just money-making. Intending pig farmers have asked specific questions over time such as;
How lucrative is pig farming in Nigeria?
What are the types of pigs found in Nigeria?
How long does it take to grow a pig?
The questions are endless. Unfortunately, there’s nothing one would give us as the best answer irrespective of what you may have read or been told. You either start small or save up to go commercial. This means there is no specific amount that must be available to kick start.
Before we continue, let’s see the types of pig one could actually raise in Nigeria. For beginners, it is best practice to buy piglets from a pig farmer who is known to have good quality pigs.
Types of Pigs in Nigeria
Basically, there are three most common types of pig commonly raised in Nigeria; they are local breed, foreign breed, and cross-breed. These species can easily adapt to any kind of environment provided you can give them proper care.
Other pig types rarely seen in the Nigerian market are;
- Aksai Black Pie
- Angeln Saddleback
- Warty Pigs
- Beijing Black
- American Yorkshire
- Bearded Pigs
- Wild Boar
- Land Race
- Large White
Just like other animals, pigs are vaccinated against diseases. The use of vaccines is to stimulate an immune response that protects the animals against unknown infections.
Diseases pigs can get are as follows; mange, lice, PRRS, TGE, Atrophic rhinitis, Enzootic pneumonia, and swine dysentery. The diseases pig can get are not limited to the ones listed above but with appropriate vaccines, they can be eradicated. Meanwhile, see our guide on how to cure dropsy in fish.
Cam-borough is very active, grows very fast, has less fat, and thrives even in hot temperatures, unlike other species.
A clean environment will help in keeping the animals healthy, therefore, ensure to sweep their pen/house twice daily and also clean up the drinking can regularly.
The use of Indigenous Micro Organisms (IMO) is necessary especially when the pigs are kept on sawdust.
Indigenous Microorganisms help in keeping the environment free from offensive odour as it is mixed with water and sprinkled every two days on the pens. What IMO does is heat up the feces and urine so that when pigs feed on the sawdust when there is nothing for them to eat it won’t be harmful to them.
To make use of IMO mix the following for maximum effect;
10litres of water
2 teaspoons of IMO
Stir properly and allow the mixture to settle for two days. After the second day, sprinkle on the sawdust than the body of the pigs.
To maximize your mixture, remain at least 2litres then add more water with maize bran then continue the same process for another month.
Proper feeding is essential for the growth of every animal. Pigs according to some people eat virtually everything, that notwithstanding does not stop a pig farmer from balancing its diet. In my previous article “cost of feeding 1000 catfish in Nigeria,’’ I said that 80% of your expenditure in fish farming will be on the feed but that does not apply to the pig rearing business. It costs less to raise pigs than fish because pigs eat both leave and leftovers.
In preparing feed for the animals you can mix the following;
- 58kg maize blend
- 8kg cottonseed cake
- 8kg fishmeal
- 1kg of brown salt
- 8kg shells
- 1kg vipro
- 0.5kg premix
Mix the above in a very big bowl then you see the piglets literally smile at you. When you feed the piglets that have lost weight with the mixture of ingredients listed above for a week you will see them growing bigger overnight.
Pigs also feed on the following food substitutes;
Sweet potato vine or chips
Kitchen waste and so many other lives and fruits.
Note: before feeding your animals with leaves, first wash them with salt and water so as to kill likely germs on them, after which you chop them into chewable sizes. Endeavor to feed them daily as you observe the following measures;
- Lactating sows: 2.5kg of food
- Suckling: 0.25kg
- Full-grown ones: 3kg
- Halfway grown: 2kg
- Young ones: 1kg
Feeding according to my specification should be done once or twice daily. That means you either feed the pigs with the right quantity once or you split the food into two so you feed them twice. As you serve them food never forget to serve water at the same time.
Daily water requirements for the pigs are as follows;
- Lactating sows: 15-20litres daily
- Pregnant ones: 12-24litres
- Others: 10-15litres
Always keep their pen and drinking bowls clean daily to avoid disease.
Like I said early, there are numerous diseases pigs can get if not properly taken care of. Pig Rearing Business is lucrative as I have said but without proper training, your venture could turn into a nightmare.